Medicine, Physiology, Anatomy, Science. But also books, films... That's me! My name is Giusy Davino and I'm just a 22-years-old medical student in University of Salerno (Italy) with internet access!

 

post-mitotic:

lymph vessels
nobody seems to care much about these guys, yet your arm would swell up without them — there’s just enough net fluid leak from capillaries to cause problems in the absence of another set of pipes to return that transudate to the circulatory system
let’s have a little respect for lymphatics
colored SEM, 27x
credit: Susumu Nishinaga

post-mitotic:

lymph vessels

nobody seems to care much about these guys, yet your arm would swell up without them — there’s just enough net fluid leak from capillaries to cause problems in the absence of another set of pipes to return that transudate to the circulatory system

let’s have a little respect for lymphatics

colored SEM, 27x

credit: Susumu Nishinaga

victoriousvocabulary:

VIVIFICENT

[adjective]

Obsolete: living; possessing life; not dead.

Etymology: from Latin vivus “alive”.

[Fay Helfer]

post-mitotic:

fossilized compact bone
the yellow spheres are mineral deposits — not cells — that collected over the course of fossilization
colored SEM
credit: Steve Schmeissner

post-mitotic:

fossilized compact bone

the yellow spheres are mineral deposits — not cells — that collected over the course of fossilization

colored SEM

credit: Steve Schmeissner

Light-activated Neurons could restore paralyzed muscles.
A new way to artificially control muscles using light, with the potential to restore function to muscles paralyzed by conditions such as motor neuron disease and spinal cord injury, has been developed by scientists at Univ. College London and King’s College London.
The technique involves transplanting specially-designed motor neurons created from stem cells into injured nerve branches. These motor neurons are designed to react to pulses of blue light, allowing scientists to fine-tune muscle control by adjusting the intensity, duration and frequency of the light pulses.
In the study, published this week in Science, the team demonstrated the method in mice in which the nerves that supply muscles in the hind legs were injured. They showed that the transplanted stem cell-derived motor neurons grew along the injured nerves to connect successfully with the paralyzed muscles, which could then be controlled by pulses of blue light.
Muscles are normally controlled by motor neurons, specialized nerve cells within the brain and spinal cord. These neurons relay signals from the brain to muscles to bring about motor functions such as walking, standing and even breathing. However, motor neurons can become damaged in motor neuron disease or following spinal cord injuries, causing permanent loss of muscle function resulting in paralysis.
(To read more).

Light-activated Neurons could restore paralyzed muscles.

A new way to artificially control muscles using light, with the potential to restore function to muscles paralyzed by conditions such as motor neuron disease and spinal cord injury, has been developed by scientists at Univ. College London and King’s College London.

The technique involves transplanting specially-designed motor neurons created from stem cells into injured nerve branches. These motor neurons are designed to react to pulses of blue light, allowing scientists to fine-tune muscle control by adjusting the intensity, duration and frequency of the light pulses.

In the study, published this week in Science, the team demonstrated the method in mice in which the nerves that supply muscles in the hind legs were injured. They showed that the transplanted stem cell-derived motor neurons grew along the injured nerves to connect successfully with the paralyzed muscles, which could then be controlled by pulses of blue light.

Muscles are normally controlled by motor neurons, specialized nerve cells within the brain and spinal cord. These neurons relay signals from the brain to muscles to bring about motor functions such as walking, standing and even breathing. However, motor neurons can become damaged in motor neuron disease or following spinal cord injuries, causing permanent loss of muscle function resulting in paralysis.

(To read more).

candidscience:

Mouse skeletal muscle fibers, 600x
Connective tissue and extracellular components (white) surround the muscle, which consists of individual muscle fibres of different types (red). Skeletal muscles responsible for body movement are voluntary controlled. Skeletal muscles comprise approximately 50% of the body’s weight. During the aging process, mammals lose up to a third of their mass and strength.

Raster-Elektronen-Mikroskop, Vergrößerung 600:1

Found on LifeSciences Calendar

candidscience:

Mouse skeletal muscle fibers, 600x

Connective tissue and extracellular components (white) surround the muscle, which consists of individual muscle fibres of different types (red). Skeletal muscles responsible for body movement are voluntary controlled. Skeletal muscles comprise approximately 50% of the body’s weight. During the aging process, mammals lose up to a third of their mass and strength.

Raster-Elektronen-Mikroskop, Vergrößerung 600:1
Kupffer cell: the blood cleaner. 
This scanning electron micrograph shows the internal structure of liver tissue from an adult mouse. The sinusoids (vascular channels lined with endothelial cells) can be seen as pink structures running through the parenchyma. These contain red blood cells and Kupffer cells. Hepatocytes, shown in brown, are arranged in plates surrounding the sinusoids. 
Kupffer cells are specialized macrophages located in the liver lining the walls of the sinusoids and they are part of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). When a erythrocyte is not able anymore to perform their task because of various causes (aging, diseases), it undergoes changes in its plasma membrane, making it susceptible to selective recognition by macrophages (Kupffer cells too) and subsequent phagocytosis in spleen and liver, thus removing old and defective cells and continually purging the blood. Red blood cells are broken down by phagocytic action, where the haemoglobin molecule is split. The globin chains are re-utilized, while the iron-containing portion, heme, is further broken down into iron, which is re-utilized, and bilirubin, which is conjugated to glucuronic acid within hepatocytes and secreted into the bile.
(Picture by The Cell: An Image Library).

Kupffer cell: the blood cleaner

This scanning electron micrograph shows the internal structure of liver tissue from an adult mouse. The sinusoids (vascular channels lined with endothelial cells) can be seen as pink structures running through the parenchyma. These contain red blood cells and Kupffer cells. Hepatocytes, shown in brown, are arranged in plates surrounding the sinusoids. 

Kupffer cells are specialized macrophages located in the liver lining the walls of the sinusoids and they are part of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). When a erythrocyte is not able anymore to perform their task because of various causes (aging, diseases), it undergoes changes in its plasma membrane, making it susceptible to selective recognition by macrophages (Kupffer cells too) and subsequent phagocytosis in spleen and liver, thus removing old and defective cells and continually purging the blood. Red blood cells are broken down by phagocytic action, where the haemoglobin molecule is split. The globin chains are re-utilized, while the iron-containing portion, heme, is further broken down into iron, which is re-utilized, and bilirubin, which is conjugated to glucuronic acid within hepatocytes and secreted into the bile.

(Picture by The Cell: An Image Library).

newsweek:

"There’s a disease that’s killing our parents and no one seems to be doing anything about it." —Seth Rogen on Alzheimer’s.
5.2 million Americans have Alzheimer’s—a disease without any treatment, cure or prevention. The disease could affect 16 million Americans by 2050, costing $1.2 trillion. 
(via Alzheimer’s Is Expensive, Deadly and Growing. So Where’s the Research Money?)

newsweek:

"There’s a disease that’s killing our parents and no one seems to be doing anything about it." —Seth Rogen on Alzheimer’s.

5.2 million Americans have Alzheimer’s—a disease without any treatment, cure or prevention. The disease could affect 16 million Americans by 2050, costing $1.2 trillion. 

(via Alzheimer’s Is Expensive, Deadly and Growing. So Where’s the Research Money?)

jayparkinsonmd:

From 1988 to 2014, watch the battle to eradicate polio unfold.
Red means the country still has cases of wild polio, yellow means the country is in a region that still has cases of wild polio, and white means that the disease has been eradicated.

unicef

jayparkinsonmd:

From 1988 to 2014, watch the battle to eradicate polio unfold.

Red means the country still has cases of wild polio, yellow means the country is in a region that still has cases of wild polio, and white means that the disease has been eradicated.

unicef

thisfuturemd:

Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a macrophage white blood cell engulfing (red) Mycobacterium bovis bacteria (blue). This is the BCG (bacillus of Calmette-Guerin) strain of the bacteria, used in the vaccination for tuberculosis (TB). #TB #tuberculosis #PPD #vaccine #medicinevacteria #SEMphoto #immunology #immuneresponse #biology #medicine #premed #medschool #medstudent #postbacc

thisfuturemd:

Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a macrophage white blood cell engulfing (red) Mycobacterium bovis bacteria (blue). This is the BCG (bacillus of Calmette-Guerin) strain of the bacteria, used in the vaccination for tuberculosis (TB). #TB #tuberculosis #PPD #vaccine #medicinevacteria #SEMphoto #immunology #immuneresponse #biology #medicine #premed #medschool #medstudent #postbacc

The blood-air barrier.
This is a colorized scanning electron micrograph showing the erythrocytes (red blood cells) within the capillary network of an alveola. The blood–air barrier (alveolar–capillary barrier or membrane) exists to prevent air bubbles from forming in the blood, and from blood entering the alveoli. It is permeable to molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other gases and it is extremely thin (approximately 2μm) to allow sufficient oxygen diffusion, yet it is extremely strong. This strength comes from the type IV collagen in between the endothelial and epithelial cells. 
Failure of the barrier may occur in a pulmonary barotrauma. This can be a result of several possible causes, including blast injury, and breathing gas entrapment or retention in the lung during depressurization, which can occur during ascent from underwater diving or loss of pressure from a pressurized vehicle, habitat or pressure suit. A possible consequence of rupture of the blood–air barrier is arterial gas embolism.
(Picture by The Cell Image Library).

The blood-air barrier.

This is a colorized scanning electron micrograph showing the erythrocytes (red blood cells) within the capillary network of an alveola. The blood–air barrier (alveolar–capillary barrier or membrane) exists to prevent air bubbles from forming in the blood, and from blood entering the alveoli. It is permeable to molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other gases and it is extremely thin (approximately 2μm) to allow sufficient oxygen diffusion, yet it is extremely strong. This strength comes from the type IV collagen in between the endothelial and epithelial cells.

Failure of the barrier may occur in a pulmonary barotrauma. This can be a result of several possible causes, including blast injury, and breathing gas entrapment or retention in the lung during depressurization, which can occur during ascent from underwater diving or loss of pressure from a pressurized vehicle, habitat or pressure suit. A possible consequence of rupture of the blood–air barrier is arterial gas embolism.

(Picture by The Cell Image Library).

Alzheimer’s and art: the history of William Utermohlen.
William Utermohlen was an artist who died in 2007 from Alzheimer’s disease and who was diagnosed with it in 1995, and “from that moment on, he began to try to understand it by painting himself,” said his wife, Patricia, to The New York Times.
Utermohlen’s self-portraits reveal his decline, but they also show an artist rediscovering color. In one piece from 1996, his face is painted vibrant yellow, and his shoulders are outlined in a streak of orange. But by 1999, Ultermohlen’s flattened perspectives are taken to extremes, and the face is difficult to discern; by 2000, only black and white shapes remain.
The self-portraits ultimately reveal a heartbreaking investigation into the inner workings of an artist under duress, as he worked to regain his clarity of mind.
(To read more).

Alzheimer’s and art: the history of William Utermohlen.

William Utermohlen was an artist who died in 2007 from Alzheimer’s disease and who was diagnosed with it in 1995, and “from that moment on, he began to try to understand it by painting himself,” said his wife, Patricia, to The New York Times.

Utermohlen’s self-portraits reveal his decline, but they also show an artist rediscovering color. In one piece from 1996, his face is painted vibrant yellow, and his shoulders are outlined in a streak of orange. But by 1999, Ultermohlen’s flattened perspectives are taken to extremes, and the face is difficult to discern; by 2000, only black and white shapes remain.

The self-portraits ultimately reveal a heartbreaking investigation into the inner workings of an artist under duress, as he worked to regain his clarity of mind.

(To read more).

Neurons’ synaptic transmission.
This is a colorized scanning electron microscope picture of a nerve ending that has been broken open to reveal the synaptic vesicles (orange and blue) beneath the cell membrane.
At a synapse, the plasma membrane of the signal-passing neuron (the presynaptic neuron) comes into close apposition with the membrane of the target (postsynaptic) cell.
Neuron ends with axon, a long, slender projection that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body and that represents the presynaptic site, while the postsynaptic site is represented by dendrites, branched projections that recieve the impulses from other neural cells and that conduct them to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
There are two different types of synapses:
Chemical synapse, where electrical activity in the presynaptic neuron is converted (via the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels) into the release of a chemical called neurotransmitter, usually located in vescicles, that binds to receptors located in the postsynaptic cell, usually embedded in the plasma membrane. The neurotransmitter may initiate an electrical response or a secondary messenger pathway that may either excite or inhibit the postsynaptic neuron. Because of the complexity of receptor signal transduction, chemical synapses can have complex effects on the postsynaptic cell. 
Electrical synapse, where the presynaptic and postsynaptic cell membranes are connected by special channels called gap junctions that are capable of passing electric current, causing voltage changes in the presynaptic cell to induce voltage changes in the postsynaptic cell. The main advantage of an electrical synapse is the rapid transfer of signals from one cell to the next.
(Picture by The Cell Image Library).

Neurons’ synaptic transmission.

This is a colorized scanning electron microscope picture of a nerve ending that has been broken open to reveal the synaptic vesicles (orange and blue) beneath the cell membrane.

At a synapse, the plasma membrane of the signal-passing neuron (the presynaptic neuron) comes into close apposition with the membrane of the target (postsynaptic) cell.

Neuron ends with axon, a long, slender projection that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body and that represents the presynaptic site, while the postsynaptic site is represented by dendrites, branched projections that recieve the impulses from other neural cells and that conduct them to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.

There are two different types of synapses:

  • Chemical synapse, where electrical activity in the presynaptic neuron is converted (via the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels) into the release of a chemical called neurotransmitterusually located in vescicles, that binds to receptors located in the postsynaptic cell, usually embedded in the plasma membrane. The neurotransmitter may initiate an electrical response or a secondary messenger pathway that may either excite or inhibit the postsynaptic neuron. Because of the complexity of receptor signal transduction, chemical synapses can have complex effects on the postsynaptic cell.
  • Electrical synapse, where the presynaptic and postsynaptic cell membranes are connected by special channels called gap junctions that are capable of passing electric current, causing voltage changes in the presynaptic cell to induce voltage changes in the postsynaptic cell. The main advantage of an electrical synapse is the rapid transfer of signals from one cell to the next.

(Picture by The Cell Image Library).

smellslikecadaverine:

This image shows gas embolism and air bubbles inside the meningeal vessels in a drowned diver due to sudden decompression.

smellslikecadaverine:

This image shows gas embolism and air bubbles inside the meningeal vessels in a drowned diver due to sudden decompression.