Medicine and Science, that's me! My name is Giusy Davino and I'm just a 22-years-old medical student in University of Salerno (Italy) with internet access!
"Isn't it strange
That princes and kings
And clowns that caper
In sawdust rings
And common people
Like you and me
Are builders for eternity?
Each is given a bag of tools,
A shapeless mass,
A book of rules;
And each must make -
Ere life is flown -
A stumbling block
Or a stepping stone."

 

jewsee-medicalstudent:

The Inner Life of the Cell.

This is a old but loved video illustrating the molecular mechanisms that occur when a white blood cell in the blood vessels of the human body is activated by inflammation (Leukocyte extravasation). It shows how a white blood cell rolls along the inner surface of the capillary, flattens out, and squeezes through the cells of the capillary wall to the site of inflammation where it contributes to the immune reaction.

It is just an amazing animation that explains well how complex but perfect is our organism, how many tasks a cell has to perform in few seconds. You can just watch and be astonished.

Chlamydia trachomatis.
This picture shows human epithelial cell infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (green) and it was taken with ZEISS FE-SEM.
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen (the bacterium lives within human cells), a gram-negative bacterium, and it can appear as either coccoid or rod shape. 
C. trachomatis can cause numerous disease states in both men and women. Both sexes can display urethritis, proctitis (rectal disease and bleeding), trachoma, and infertility. The bacterium can cause prostatitis and epididymitis in men. In women, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and acute or chronic pelvic pain are frequent complications. It is the single most important infectious agent associated with blindness.

Chlamydia trachomatis.

This picture shows human epithelial cell infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (green) and it was taken with ZEISS FE-SEM.

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen (the bacterium lives within human cells), a gram-negative bacterium, and it can appear as either coccoid or rod shape. 

C. trachomatis can cause numerous disease states in both men and women. Both sexes can display urethritis, proctitis (rectal disease and bleeding), trachoma, and infertility. The bacterium can cause prostatitis and epididymitis in men. In women, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and acute or chronic pelvic pain are frequent complications. It is the single most important infectious agent associated with blindness.

ah-thenah:

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) is a rare blood disorder characterized by clotting in small blood vessels of the body (thromboses), resulting in a low platelet count. In its full-blown form, the disease consists of the pentad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, neurologic abnormalities, fever, and renal disease.”

Image 1: Peripheral smear from a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: Red blood cells are fragmented and appear as schistocytes. Certain schistocytes have the appearance of helmet cells (H). Spheroidal cells often are present (S). Occasional nucleated erythroid precursors may be present.

Image 2: A small platelet-fibrin thrombus is seen in a glomerular capillary above the arrow. This occurred in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This rare coagulopathy mainly affects kidneys, heart, and brain with small arteriolar thrombi. Acute renal failure can occur. The classic pentad of fever, acute renal failure, neurologic changes, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia is often present.

Sources: [x] [x]

Food in Med school

whatshouldwecallmedschool:

Throwback Monday

whatshouldwecallmedschool:

During Cardio: “Fatty food will kill you”

image

Endocrine: “Sugary food will kill you”

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Microbiology: “All the fruits, veggies, seafoods, meats, etc, etc…will kill you!”

image

Pathology: “It’s called caseous necrosis because it looks like cheese!”

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A stumbling block or a stepping stone.
Denton Arthur Cooley is an American heart surgeon. In 1969, he became the first heart surgeon to implant an artificial heart in a man, Haskell Karp, who lived for 65 hours. The next year, in 1970, he performed the first implantation of an artificial heart in a human when no heart replacement was immediately available.
There is in the hall of the Texas Heart Institute a Cooley’s bronze bust with these words beside:

Isn’t it strange
That princes and kings
And clowns that caper 
In sawdust rings 
And common people 
Like you and me 
Are builders for eternity?
Each is given a bag of tools,
 A shapeless mass,
A book of rules; 
And each must make -
Ere life is flown - 
A stumbling block 
Or a stepping stone.

A stumbling block or a stepping stone.

Denton Arthur Cooley is an American heart surgeon. In 1969, he became the first heart surgeon to implant an artificial heart in a man, Haskell Karp, who lived for 65 hours. The next year, in 1970, he performed the first implantation of an artificial heart in a human when no heart replacement was immediately available.

There is in the hall of the Texas Heart Institute a Cooley’s bronze bust with these words beside:

Isn’t it strange

That princes and kings

And clowns that caper

In sawdust rings

And common people

Like you and me

Are builders for eternity?

Each is given a bag of tools,

A shapeless mass,

A book of rules;

And each must make -

Ere life is flown -

A stumbling block

Or a stepping stone.

Sofosbuvir is now totally free in Italy.
Sofosbuvir is a drug used to treat Hepatitis C infection and it is effective in 90 percent of patients. It inhibits the RNA polymerase that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses to replicate its RNA. 
Its price was quoted in various media sources as $84,000 to $168,000 for a course of treatment in the U.S. and £35,000 for 12 weeks in the UK.
Sofosbuvir is, from today, totally free in Italy for patients with most critical conditions (cirrhosis of the liver or post transplantation).

Sofosbuvir is now totally free in Italy.

Sofosbuvir is a drug used to treat Hepatitis C infection and it is effective in 90 percent of patients. It inhibits the RNA polymerase that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses to replicate its RNA.

Its price was quoted in various media sources as $84,000 to $168,000 for a course of treatment in the U.S. and £35,000 for 12 weeks in the UK.

Sofosbuvir is, from today, totally free in Italy for patients with most critical conditions (cirrhosis of the liver or post transplantation).

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD).

These are the voluminous polycistic kidneys of a 48-year-old man after bilateral nephrectomy; the removed kidneys weighed a total of 22 kg (48.4 lb; 21.6% of his total body weight), and the larger right kidney measured 51 cm. Three months after the nephrectomy, he underwent successful kidney transplantation from a living related donor. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient had normal kidney function.

ADPKD is an inherited systemic disorder that predominantly affects the kidneys, but may affect other organs including the liver, pancreas, brain, and arterial blood vessels. Approximately 50% of people with this disease will develop end stage kidney disease and require dialysis or kidney transplantation. Progression to end stage kidney disease usually happens in the 4th to 6th decades of life.

Defects in two genes are thought to be responsible for ADPKD. In 85% of patients, ADPKD is caused by mutations in the gene PKD1 on chromosome 16 (TRPP1); in 15% of patients mutations in PKD2 (TRPP2) are causative.

These genes encode membrane proteins, polycystin-1 or polycystin-2, that localize to a non-motile cilium on the renal tube cell.

(Images and clinical informations via NEJM).

emt-monster:

Two hearts

A 64-year-old had a heart transplant due to heart failure. Because of the presence of severely high blood pressure in the lung circulation (pulmonary hypertension), the recipient’s native heart (N) was left in place and the donor heart was implanted in the right chest. The native heart maintains right circulation in spite of chronic pulmonary hypertension, while the donor heart (D) functions as a biologic left ventricle.

The post-transplantation electrocardiogram shows two QRS complexes (Panel A). The donor heart can be seen clearly in the right chest on both the x-ray (Panel B) and the CT-scan (Panel C) of the chest.

An automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator and cardiac medications are used to treat the recipient’s native heart, as are immunosuppressive medications for the donor heart.

(NEJM)

Wow

skunkbear:

As Virginia Hughes noted in a recent piece for National Geographic’s Phenomena blog, the most common depiction of a synapse (that communicating junction between two neurons) is pretty simple:

Signal molecules leave one neuron from that bulby thing, float across a gap, and are picked up by receptors on the other neuron. In this way, information is transmitted from cell to cell … and thinking is possible.

But thanks to a bunch of German scientists - we now have a much more complete and accurate picture. They’ve created the first scientifically accurate 3D model of a synaptic bouton (that bulby bit) complete with every protein and cytoskeletal element.

This effort has been made possible only by a collaboration of specialists in electron microscopy, super-resolution light microscopy (STED), mass spectrometry, and quantitative biochemistry.

says the press release. The model reveals a whole world of neuroscience waiting to be explored. Exciting stuff!

You can access the full video of their 3D model here.

Credit: Benjamin G. Wilhelm, Sunit Mandad, Sven Truckenbrodt, Katharina Kröhnert, Christina Schäfer, Burkhard Rammner, Seong Joo Koo, Gala A. Claßen, Michael Krauss, Volker Haucke, Henning Urlaub, Silvio O. Rizzoli

sciencephotolibrary:

Measles virus particle, coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). This virus, from the Morbillivirus group of viruses, consists of an RNA (ribonucleic acid, purple strands) core surrounded by a envelope (bright blue) studded with surface proteins, which are used to attach to and penetrate a host cell. Measles is a highly infectious itchy rash with a fever. It mainly affects children, but one attack usually gives life-long immunity.
Credit: CENTRE FOR INFECTIONS/PUBLIC HEALTH ENGLAND/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

sciencephotolibrary:

Measles virus particle, coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). This virus, from the Morbillivirus group of viruses, consists of an RNA (ribonucleic acid, purple strands) core surrounded by a envelope (bright blue) studded with surface proteins, which are used to attach to and penetrate a host cell. Measles is a highly infectious itchy rash with a fever. It mainly affects children, but one attack usually gives life-long immunity.

Credit: CENTRE FOR INFECTIONS/PUBLIC HEALTH ENGLAND/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

If you’re fat, blame your genes!
Actually, obesity is not a joke. It is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person’s weight by the square of the person’s height, exceeds 30 kg/m².
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.
Proved that excessive food energy intake and lack of physical activity play the main roles, there is also a genetic susceptibility and in the later years a theory is getting a foothold: the Thrifty gene hypothesis.
The recent rise in obesity and type 2 diabetes rates has reached high levels, due to more food availability and sedentary lifestyle, but this is not widespread through all people that eat a lot and are lazy. Why? 
In 1962 geneticist James Neel proposed the thrifty gene hypothesis to partially explain the rise in Type 2 diabetes in the world and he suggested genes which predispose to diabetes (called ‘thrifty genes’) were historically advantageous, but they became detrimental in the modern world and by progress. Neel’s primary interest was in diabetes, but the idea was soon expanded to also encompass obesity. 
Thrifty genes are genes which enable individuals to efficiently collect and process food to deposit fat during periods of food abundance. According to the hypothesis, the ‘thrifty’ genotype would have been advantageous for hunter-gatherer populations, especially child-bearing women, because it would allow them to fatten more quickly during times of abundance. Fatter individuals carrying the thrifty genes would thus better survive times of food scarcity. However, in modern societies with a constant abundance of food, this genotype efficiently prepares individuals for a famine that never comes. The result of this mismatch between the environment in which the brain evolved and the environment of today is a widespread chronic obesity and related health problems like diabetes.

If you’re fat, blame your genes!

Actually, obesity is not a joke. It is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person’s weight by the square of the person’s height, exceeds 30 kg/.

Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

Proved that excessive food energy intake and lack of physical activity play the main roles, there is also a genetic susceptibility and in the later years a theory is getting a foothold: the Thrifty gene hypothesis.

The recent rise in obesity and type 2 diabetes rates has reached high levels, due to more food availability and sedentary lifestyle, but this is not widespread through all people that eat a lot and are lazy. Why? 

In 1962 geneticist James Neel proposed the thrifty gene hypothesis to partially explain the rise in Type 2 diabetes in the world and he suggested genes which predispose to diabetes (called ‘thrifty genes’) were historically advantageous, but they became detrimental in the modern world and by progress. Neel’s primary interest was in diabetes, but the idea was soon expanded to also encompass obesity.

Thrifty genes are genes which enable individuals to efficiently collect and process food to deposit fat during periods of food abundance. According to the hypothesis, the ‘thrifty’ genotype would have been advantageous for hunter-gatherer populations, especially child-bearing women, because it would allow them to fatten more quickly during times of abundance. Fatter individuals carrying the thrifty genes would thus better survive times of food scarcity. However, in modern societies with a constant abundance of food, this genotype efficiently prepares individuals for a famine that never comes. The result of this mismatch between the environment in which the brain evolved and the environment of today is a widespread chronic obesity and related health problems like diabetes.

fuckyeahsurgery:

"Heart in a Box"
Transmedics Organ Care System:
Doctors call it a “beating heart transplant,” but it’s more commonly known as “heart in a box.” In the new method, doctors use a machine to keep a transplanted heart viable outside a patient’s body for up to 12 hours. The machine pumps oxygenated blood through the heart, keeping it in good condition longer.It was life-saving for DeStefano, New England’s first patient. The mother of two hopes to be home from Massachusetts General Hospital next week.Right now, about half of all donor hearts are wasted with the current method of putting them on ice because that can only keep the heart useable for four hours.
"Heart in a box" transplants are common in Europe. The device was created by Andover company TransMedics Inc.
—Source: The Boston Channel, 2012

fuckyeahsurgery:

"Heart in a Box"

Transmedics Organ Care System:

Doctors call it a “beating heart transplant,” but it’s more commonly known as “heart in a box.” In the new method, doctors use a machine to keep a transplanted heart viable outside a patient’s body for up to 12 hours. The machine pumps oxygenated blood through the heart, keeping it in good condition longer.It was life-saving for DeStefano, New England’s first patient. The mother of two hopes to be home from Massachusetts General Hospital next week.Right now, about half of all donor hearts are wasted with the current method of putting them on ice because that can only keep the heart useable for four hours.

"Heart in a box" transplants are common in Europe. The device was created by Andover company TransMedics Inc.

—Source: The Boston Channel, 2012

The aortic arch in a child.
This amazing picture shows the arch of the aorta, a part of the aorta between ascending aorta and thoracic aorta, with its three major branches: from the left to the right they are the brachiocephalic trunk, which supplies the right side of the head and neck, as well as the right arm and chest wall, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The latter two together supply the left side of the same regions.
Aorta originates from left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries) and it distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation. 
The aortic arch contains baroreceptors and chemoreceptors that relay information concerning blood pressure and blood pH and carbon dioxide levels to the medulla oblongata of the brain. This information is processed by the brain and the autonomic nervous system mediates the homeostatic responses.
(Picture from Lennart Nilsson Photography).

The aortic arch in a child.

This amazing picture shows the arch of the aorta, a part of the aorta between ascending aorta and thoracic aorta, with its three major branches: from the left to the right they are the brachiocephalic trunk, which supplies the right side of the head and neck, as well as the right arm and chest wall, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The latter two together supply the left side of the same regions.

Aorta originates from left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries) and it distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation.

The aortic arch contains baroreceptors and chemoreceptors that relay information concerning blood pressure and blood pH and carbon dioxide levels to the medulla oblongata of the brain. This information is processed by the brain and the autonomic nervous system mediates the homeostatic responses.

(Picture from Lennart Nilsson Photography).