Medicine and Science, that's me! My name is Giusy Davino and I'm just a 22-years-old medical student in University of Salerno (Italy) with internet access!
"Isn't it strange
That princes and kings
And clowns that caper
In sawdust rings
And common people
Like you and me
Are builders for eternity?
Each is given a bag of tools,
A shapeless mass,
A book of rules;
And each must make -
Ere life is flown -
A stumbling block
Or a stepping stone."

 

Ebola outbreak.

An ongoing epidemic of the Ebola virus disease has spread throughout Guinea and beyond the nation’s borders in West Africa. The outbreak, which began in Guinea in February 2014 and has spread to Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria, is the most severe in recorded history, both in the number of cases and fatalities. A suspected 1,323 cases with 729 deaths have been reported as of 27 July 2014, with 909 cases and 485 deaths confirmed to be Ebola.

But what is actually Ebola?

Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is the human disease caused by the ebola virus.

Ebola virus (formerly officially designated Zaire ebolavirus, or EBOV) is a virological taxon species included in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae. The Zaire ebolavirus is the most dangerous of the six species of Ebola viruses of the Ebolavirus genus which are the causative agents of Ebola virus disease and it is responsible of the outbreak.

Signs and symptoms: Manifestation begins with a sudden onset of an influenza-like stage characterized by general malaise, fever with chills, sore throat, severe headache, weakness, joint pain, muscle pain, and chest pain. The development of hemorrhagic symptoms is indicative of a negative prognosis. However, contrary to popular belief, hemorrhage does not lead to hypovolemia and is not the cause of death (total blood loss is low except during labor). Instead, death occurs due to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to fluid redistribution, hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and focal tissue necroses. 

Transmission: Ebola virus is transmitted to a human index case via contact with an infected animal’s bodily fluids. Human-to-human transmission occurs via direct contact with blood or bodily fluids from an infected person (including embalming of an infected dead person) or by contact with contaminated medical equipment, particularly needles and syringes. Medical workers who do not wear protective clothing, such as gloves and surgical masks, may also contract the disease.

Treatment: No ebolavirus-specific treatment exists. Treatment is primarily supportive in nature and includes minimizing invasive procedures, balancing fluids and electrolytes to counter dehydration, administration of anticoagulants early in infection to prevent or control disseminated intravascular coagulation, administration of procoagulants late in infection to control hemorrhaging, maintaining oxygen levels, pain management, and administration of antibiotics or antimycotics to treat secondary infections.

Sterilization procedures, isolating patients and good hygienic practices are the only way to prevent transmission.

nurse-with-a-smile:

Intradermal:
This route is usually used for tuberculin testing or checking for medication/allergy sensitivities
It may be used for some cancer immunotherapy
Use small amounts of solution [0.01-0.1 mL] in a tuberculin syringe with a fine-gauge needle [26 to 27] in lightly pigmented, thin skinned, hairless sites [inner surface of mid-forearm or scapular area of back] at a 10-15 degree angle.
Subcutaneous:
This route is appropriate for small doses of nonirritating, water-soluble medications and is commonly used for insulin and heparin.
Use a 3/8- to 5/8-inch, 25- to 27-gauge needle, or an insulin syringe of 28- to 31- gauge. 
Inject no more than 1.5 mL solution. 
For an average size client, pinch up skin and inject at 45-90 degree angle. For an obese client, use a 90 degree angle.
Sites are selected for adequate fat-pad size [abdomen, upper hips, lateral upper arms, thighs]
Intramuscular:
This route is appropriate for irritating medications, solutions in oils, and aqueous suspensions.
Most common sites include ventrogluteal, dorsogluteal, deltoid, and vast us lateralis [pediatric]
Use needle size 18 to 27 [usually 22- to 25-gauge], 1 to 1.5 inches long, and inject at a 90 degree angle.
Volume injected is usually 1-3 mL.
If > 3 mL is required, divide into two syringes and use two sites.

nurse-with-a-smile:

Intradermal:

  • This route is usually used for tuberculin testing or checking for medication/allergy sensitivities
  • It may be used for some cancer immunotherapy
  • Use small amounts of solution [0.01-0.1 mL] in a tuberculin syringe with a fine-gauge needle [26 to 27] in lightly pigmented, thin skinned, hairless sites [inner surface of mid-forearm or scapular area of back] at a 10-15 degree angle.

Subcutaneous:

  • This route is appropriate for small doses of nonirritating, water-soluble medications and is commonly used for insulin and heparin.
  • Use a 3/8- to 5/8-inch, 25- to 27-gauge needle, or an insulin syringe of 28- to 31- gauge. 
  • Inject no more than 1.5 mL solution. 
  • For an average size client, pinch up skin and inject at 45-90 degree angle. For an obese client, use a 90 degree angle.
  • Sites are selected for adequate fat-pad size [abdomen, upper hips, lateral upper arms, thighs]

Intramuscular:

  • This route is appropriate for irritating medications, solutions in oils, and aqueous suspensions.
  • Most common sites include ventrogluteal, dorsogluteal, deltoid, and vast us lateralis [pediatric]
  • Use needle size 18 to 27 [usually 22- to 25-gauge], 1 to 1.5 inches long, and inject at a 90 degree angle.
  • Volume injected is usually 1-3 mL.
  • If > 3 mL is required, divide into two syringes and use two sites.
scienceyoucanlove:

Today’s badass of the week, Source: http://is.gd/7bq4So
through Hashem AL-ghaili

I remember this, it happened few years ago. Proud to be italian!

scienceyoucanlove:

Today’s badass of the week, Source: http://is.gd/7bq4So

through Hashem AL-ghaili

I remember this, it happened few years ago. Proud to be italian!

A child is born.
Swedish photographer Lennart Nilsson spent 12 years of his life taking pictures of the foetus developing in the womb. These incredible photographs were taken with conventional cameras with macro lenses, an endoscope and scanning electron microscope. Nilsson used a magnification of hundreds of thousands and “worked” right in the womb.
He published is work as a book, A child is born, in 1965 and it consists of photographs charting the development of the human embryo and fetus from conception to birth. Photographs are accompanied by text, written by doctors, describing prenatal development and offering advice on antenatal care.
This picture shows a foetus of 16 weeks. The skeleton consists mainly of flexible cartridge and a network of blood vessels is visible through the thin skin.

A child is born.

Swedish photographer Lennart Nilsson spent 12 years of his life taking pictures of the foetus developing in the womb. These incredible photographs were taken with conventional cameras with macro lenses, an endoscope and scanning electron microscope. Nilsson used a magnification of hundreds of thousands and “worked” right in the womb.

He published is work as a book, A child is born, in 1965 and it consists of photographs charting the development of the human embryo and fetus from conception to birth. Photographs are accompanied by text, written by doctors, describing prenatal development and offering advice on antenatal care.

This picture shows a foetus of 16 weeks. The skeleton consists mainly of flexible cartridge and a network of blood vessels is visible through the thin skin.

First biological pacemaker created by transplanting gene into hearts.
The contraction of cardiac muscle is initiated by electrical impulses. The cells that create these rhythmical impulses are called pacemaker cells, and they directly control the heart rate. They are located in the sinoatrial node (SA node), positioned on the wall of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava, and they are modified cardiomyocyte.
Patients with irregular heartbeats or blockages often need an artificial pacemaker to replace the heart’s defective pacemaker duties. But now, cardiologists from the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute in Los Angeles, CA, have created a gene transplant procedure that transforms heart cells into a biological pacemaker that regulates the heart’s beating.
For their study, the team injected laboratory pigs that had complete heart block with a gene called TBX18, through a minimally invasive procedure using a catheter. On the very next day, the team observed that the pigs who received the gene had "significantly" faster heartbeats, compared with the pigs who did not receive the gene, and this stronger heartbeat remained throughout the entire 14-day study.
(To read more).

First biological pacemaker created by transplanting gene into hearts.

The contraction of cardiac muscle is initiated by electrical impulses. The cells that create these rhythmical impulses are called pacemaker cells, and they directly control the heart rate. They are located in the sinoatrial node (SA node), positioned on the wall of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava, and they are modified cardiomyocyte.

Patients with irregular heartbeats or blockages often need an artificial pacemaker to replace the heart’s defective pacemaker duties. But now, cardiologists from the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute in Los Angeles, CA, have created a gene transplant procedure that transforms heart cells into a biological pacemaker that regulates the heart’s beating.

For their study, the team injected laboratory pigs that had complete heart block with a gene called TBX18, through a minimally invasive procedure using a catheter. On the very next day, the team observed that the pigs who received the gene had "significantly" faster heartbeats, compared with the pigs who did not receive the gene, and this stronger heartbeat remained throughout the entire 14-day study.

(To read more).

scienceyoucanlove:

“A team of researchers from Temple University of Medicine, US have made a significant breakthrough on the path towards a permanent cure for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by designing a way to cut out integrated HIV-1 genes from human cells.”Further details:L#1: http://is.gd/yYjpxcL#2: http://is.gd/0oWb8mL#3: http://is.gd/GdqsZGImage via: Fine art America
through Hashem AL-ghaili

scienceyoucanlove:

“A team of researchers from Temple University of Medicine, US have made a significant breakthrough on the path towards a permanent cure for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by designing a way to cut out integrated HIV-1 genes from human cells.”

Further details:

L#1: http://is.gd/yYjpxc
L#2: http://is.gd/0oWb8m
L#3: http://is.gd/GdqsZG

Image via: Fine art America

through Hashem AL-ghaili

jewsee-medicalstudent:

The Inner Life of the Cell.

This is a old but loved video illustrating the molecular mechanisms that occur when a white blood cell in the blood vessels of the human body is activated by inflammation (Leukocyte extravasation). It shows how a white blood cell rolls along the inner surface of the capillary, flattens out, and squeezes through the cells of the capillary wall to the site of inflammation where it contributes to the immune reaction.

It is just an amazing animation that explains well how complex but perfect is our organism, how many tasks a cell has to perform in few seconds. You can just watch and be astonished.

Chlamydia trachomatis.
This picture shows human epithelial cell infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (green) and it was taken with ZEISS FE-SEM.
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen (the bacterium lives within human cells), a gram-negative bacterium, and it can appear as either coccoid or rod shape. 
C. trachomatis can cause numerous disease states in both men and women. Both sexes can display urethritis, proctitis (rectal disease and bleeding), trachoma, and infertility. The bacterium can cause prostatitis and epididymitis in men. In women, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and acute or chronic pelvic pain are frequent complications. It is the single most important infectious agent associated with blindness.

Chlamydia trachomatis.

This picture shows human epithelial cell infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (green) and it was taken with ZEISS FE-SEM.

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen (the bacterium lives within human cells), a gram-negative bacterium, and it can appear as either coccoid or rod shape. 

C. trachomatis can cause numerous disease states in both men and women. Both sexes can display urethritis, proctitis (rectal disease and bleeding), trachoma, and infertility. The bacterium can cause prostatitis and epididymitis in men. In women, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and acute or chronic pelvic pain are frequent complications. It is the single most important infectious agent associated with blindness.

ah-thenah:

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) is a rare blood disorder characterized by clotting in small blood vessels of the body (thromboses), resulting in a low platelet count. In its full-blown form, the disease consists of the pentad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, neurologic abnormalities, fever, and renal disease.”

Image 1: Peripheral smear from a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: Red blood cells are fragmented and appear as schistocytes. Certain schistocytes have the appearance of helmet cells (H). Spheroidal cells often are present (S). Occasional nucleated erythroid precursors may be present.

Image 2: A small platelet-fibrin thrombus is seen in a glomerular capillary above the arrow. This occurred in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This rare coagulopathy mainly affects kidneys, heart, and brain with small arteriolar thrombi. Acute renal failure can occur. The classic pentad of fever, acute renal failure, neurologic changes, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia is often present.

Sources: [x] [x]

Food in Med school

whatshouldwecallmedschool:

Throwback Monday

whatshouldwecallmedschool:

During Cardio: “Fatty food will kill you”

image

Endocrine: “Sugary food will kill you”

image

Microbiology: “All the fruits, veggies, seafoods, meats, etc, etc…will kill you!”

image

Pathology: “It’s called caseous necrosis because it looks like cheese!”

image

A stumbling block or a stepping stone.
Denton Arthur Cooley is an American heart surgeon. In 1969, he became the first heart surgeon to implant an artificial heart in a man, Haskell Karp, who lived for 65 hours. The next year, in 1970, he performed the first implantation of an artificial heart in a human when no heart replacement was immediately available.
There is in the hall of the Texas Heart Institute a Cooley’s bronze bust with these words beside:

Isn’t it strange
That princes and kings
And clowns that caper 
In sawdust rings 
And common people 
Like you and me 
Are builders for eternity?
Each is given a bag of tools,
 A shapeless mass,
A book of rules; 
And each must make -
Ere life is flown - 
A stumbling block 
Or a stepping stone.

A stumbling block or a stepping stone.

Denton Arthur Cooley is an American heart surgeon. In 1969, he became the first heart surgeon to implant an artificial heart in a man, Haskell Karp, who lived for 65 hours. The next year, in 1970, he performed the first implantation of an artificial heart in a human when no heart replacement was immediately available.

There is in the hall of the Texas Heart Institute a Cooley’s bronze bust with these words beside:

Isn’t it strange

That princes and kings

And clowns that caper

In sawdust rings

And common people

Like you and me

Are builders for eternity?

Each is given a bag of tools,

A shapeless mass,

A book of rules;

And each must make -

Ere life is flown -

A stumbling block

Or a stepping stone.